Costa Rica's geography reveals a history of cataclysm, with earthquakes, floods and volcanoes shaping its present-day landscape. In 1993, laws were passed to enable elected health boards that represented health consumers, social insurance representatives, employers, and social organizations. Costa Rica hosts many refugees, mainly from Colombia and Nicaragua. The circumstances during this period are believed to have led to many of the idiosyncrasies for which Costa Rica has become known, while concomitantly setting the stage for Costa Rica's development as a more egalitarian society than the rest of its neighbors. Costa Rica also borders Nicaragua to the north and Panama to the south. "Hechos Militares y Políticos de Nuestra Historia Patria". But, Costa Rica packs a lot into this small territory, with a diverse variety of climates, landscapes, and lifestyles. The country also experienced well-being higher than many richer nations and a per capita ecological footprint one-third the size of the United States. Costa Rica is not part of Puerto Rico nor is it a territory of the United States either.  With more than 2,000 dead, the resulting 44-day Costa Rican Civil War was the bloodiest event in Costa Rica during the 20th century. There are no provincial legislatures.  When the army was abolished in 1949, it was said that the "army would be replaced with an army of teachers". Another school of thought leading to the assumption is in relation to the Isthmus which connects South America and North America. A Total Fertility Rate (TFR) of 2.1 represents the Replacement-Level Fertility: the average number of children per woman needed for each generation to exactly replace itself without needing international immigration.A value below 2.1 will cause the native population to decline  The country spends roughly 6.9% of its budget (2016) on education, compared to a global average of 4.4%. Costa Rica took in many refugees from a range of other Latin American countries fleeing civil wars and dictatorships during the 1970s and 1980s, notably from Chile and Argentina, as well as people from El Salvador who fled from guerrillas and government death squads. Exceptions are Guanacaste, where almost half the population is visibly mestizo, a legacy of the more pervasive unions between Spanish colonists and Chorotega Amerindians through several generations, and Limón, where the vast majority of the Afro-Costa Rican community lives.  By 2015, 93 percent of the country's electricity came from renewable sources. Others are mulattoes, Native Americans, and blacks. Several sli… Reggae in Puerto Viejo.  The growing debt and budget deficit are the country's primary concerns. Central America is composed of seven countries namely Costa Rica, Belize, Guatemala, Panama, El Salvador, Nicaragua, and Honduras.  Costa Rica is particularly attractive to Americans due to geographic proximity, high quality of medical services, and lower medical costs.. Upon independence, Costa Rican authorities faced the issue of officially deciding the future of the country. The most important exports in 2015 (in order of dollar value) were medical instruments, bananas, tropical fruits, integrated circuits and orthopedic appliances. On 1 June 2007, Costa Rica broke diplomatic ties with Taiwan, switching recognition to the People's Republic of China. Paulo Wanchope, a forward who played for three clubs in England's Premier League in the late 1990s and early 2000s, is credited with enhancing foreign recognition of Costa Rican football. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (, Daniel Oduber Quirós International Airport, Organisation internationale de la Francophonie, treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, "Live Costa Rica Population Clock 2017 - Population of Costa Rica Today", "International Religious Freedom Report for 2017", "Ahora solo la mitad de los ticos se declara católica", United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, "Amazon invests in Costa Rica as tiny nation carves out profitable niche in world economy", "The Investment Promotion Agency of Costa Rica", "Aniversario de la Independencia Nacional", "Costa Rica's Coffee Tradition - Costa Rica Star News", "Costa Rica Coffee - Past & Present Coffee Cultivations", "Coffee Production and Processing on a Large Costa Rican Finca", Ian Holzhauer, "The Presidency of Calderón Guardia" (University of Florida History Thesis, 2004), "Why getting rid of Costa Rica's army 70 years ago has been such a success", "Costa Rican president backs holiday for army abolition", "This country regrew its lost forest. The perinatal mortality rate dropped from 12.0 per 1000 in 1972 to 5.4 per 1000 in 2001.. Although we cannot still cry out the victory, it is necessary to recognize all the efforts and achievements obtained in this arduous battle, which has affected all of Humanity. It remained a peripheral colony of the empire until independence as part of the First Mexican Empire, followed by membership in the Federal Republic of Central America, from which it formally declared independence in 1847. Panama is the southernmost country in Central America. Lara, Sylvia Lara, Tom Barry, and Peter Simonson. By Daniel Maina Wambugu on July 17 2019 in World Facts. Christianity is Costa Rica's predominant religion, with Roman Catholicism being the official state religion according to the 1949 Constitution, which at the same time guarantees freedom of religion. The once agricultural dependent economy has diversified to other sectors such as pharmaceuticals, ecotourism, finance and foreign company investments through the Free Trade Zones (FTZ). Shards of pots, cylindrical vases, platters, gourds and other forms of vases decorated with grooves, prints, and some modelled after animals have been found.. On 10 September 1961, some months after Fidel Castro declared Cuba a socialist state, Costa Rican President Mario Echandi ended diplomatic relations with Cuba through Executive Decree Number 2.  Its economy, once heavily dependent on agriculture, has diversified to include sectors such as finance, corporate services for foreign companies, pharmaceuticals, and ecotourism. Costa Rica is with 51.100 square kilometers the 129th largest country in the world. Since 1999, tourism earns more foreign exchange than the combined exports of the country's three main cash crops: bananas and pineapples especially, but also other crops, including coffee. This is how Costa Rican cuisine today is very varied, with every new ethnic group who had recently become part of the country's population influencing the country's cuisine. The victorious rebels formed a government junta that abolished the military altogether, and oversaw the drafting of a new constitution by a democratically elected assembly.  In 2016, the World Travel & Tourism Council's estimates indicated a direct contribution to the GDP of 5.1% and 110,000 direct jobs in Costa Rica; the total number of jobs indirectly supported by tourism was 271,000.  In 2015, the value of coffee exports was US$305.9 million, a small part of the total agricultural exports of US$2.7 billion. In exchange for completing the railroad, the Costa Rican government granted Keith large tracts of land and a lease on the train route, which he used to produce bananas and export them to the United States. ", This page was last edited on 11 December 2020, at 09:22. It is one of the few countries that has a Pacific as well as Atlantic Ocean coast. Costa Rica was the first of the Central American nations to do so. Central America is a portion of land that connects the two regions of North America and South America. It even is under the Latin American average of 62 percent and 85 percent in Europe, FLACSO reported. There are two seasons. The unpopularity of Tinoco's regime led, after he was overthrown, to a considerable decline in the size, wealth, and political influence of the Costa Rican military. The index measures the health and happiness they produce per unit of environmental input. They mainly grew tubers and roots. Because of its educational system, Costa Rica has one of the highest literacy rates in Latin America, 97%. Football is the most popular sport in Costa Rica. Despite what you may have heard, Costa Rica is not an island! In the 2011 Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Index, Costa Rica ranked 44th in the world and second among Latin American countries after Mexico in 2011.  In 2016, Amazon.com for example, had some 3,500 employees in Costa Rica and planned to increase that by 1,500 in 2017, making it an important employer. The country needs even more workers who are fluent in English and languages such as Portuguese, Mandarin and French. https://www.worldatlas.com/articles/is-costa-rica-in-south-america.html Located on the eastern shore of Lake Arenal in northwestern Costa Rica, Volcán Arenal was thought to … All maps, graphics, flags, photos and original descriptions © 2020 worldatlas.com, southernmost part of the continent of North America. It borders Costa Rica to the west. Costa Rica is incredibly safe, as long as you use good sense. As a result of the immigration of Spaniards, their 16th-century Spanish culture and its evolution marked everyday life and culture until today, with Spanish language and the Catholic religion as primary influences.  Costa Rica has a very low malaria incidence of 48 per 100,000 in 2000 and no reported cases of measles in 2002.  Similarly, Costa Rica has a tax on water pollution to penalize businesses and homeowners that dump sewage, agricultural chemicals, and other pollutants into waterways. The national team has played in five FIFA World Cup tournaments and reached the quarter-finals for the first time in 2014.  The rate of secularism is high by Latin American standards. The presence of Clovis culture type spearheads and arrows from South America opens the possibility that, in this area, two different cultures coexisted. Two bands formed, the Imperialists, defended by Cartago and Heredia cities which were in favor of joining the Mexican Empire, and the Republicans, represented by the cities of San José and Alajuela who defended full independence. About 7% of GDP is allocated to the health sector, and over 70% is government funded. The University of Costa Rica has been awarded the title "Meritorious Institution of Costa Rican Education and Culture". ", "Solo 1 de cada 10 adultos habla un segundo idioma". , High quality health care is provided by the government at low cost to the users. Like the rest of Central America, Costa Rica never fought for independence from Spain. There is a rich variety of plants and Costa Rican wildlife. This geographic location of Costa Rica within the Isthmus makes people conclude that the country is part of South America. , Costa Rica has a long-term disagreement with Nicaragua over the San Juan River, which defines the border between the two countries, and Costa Rica's rights of navigation on the river. , The 2011 census counted a population of 4.3 million people distributed among the following groups: 83.6% whites or mestizos, 6.7% mulattoes, 2.4% Native American, 1.1% black or Afro-Caribbean; the census showed 1.1% as Other, 2.9% (141,304 people) as None, and 2.2% (107,196 people) as unspecified. Costa Rica has been cited as Central America's great health success story. Dance-oriented genres, such as soca, salsa, bachata, merengue, cumbia and Costa Rican swing are enjoyed increasingly by older rather than younger people. , A pioneer of ecotourism, Costa Rica draws many tourists to its extensive series of national parks and other protected areas. After the coup d'état, Figueres became a national hero, winning the country's first democratic election under the new constitution in 1953. Can the world learn from it? Despite a comparatively lower cost of living, nominal salaries are common in many job sectors for non-skilled or semi-skilled workers. The continent has twelve sovereign states, non-sovereign places like British Overseas Territory and the Falkland Islands and consists of some part of France (French Guiana).  In 2010, there was also a dispute around Isla Calero, and the impact of Nicaraguan dredging of the river in that area.  In 2019, the country produced 99.62% of its electricity from renewable sources and ran completely on renewable sources for 300 continuous days. More recently, pre-Columbian Costa Rica has also been described as part of the Isthmo-Colombian Area.  According to DW, "Costa Rica is known for its stable democracy, progressive social policies, such as free, compulsory public education, high social well-being, and emphasis on environmental protection. These conclusions are not valid because Central America and South America are geographically separate. The country has consistently performed favorably in the Human Development Index (HDI), placing 68th in the world as of 2019[update], and fifth in Latin America. It does, however, border Panama, so it is closer to mainland South America than to Mexico and mainland North America. In spite of its tiny size, the country hosts an impressive 5% of the world’s biodiversity, 121 volcanic formations, and over 100 protected natural areas. With uninterrupted democracy dating back to at least 1948, the country is the region's most stable.. In 1917–19, General Federico Tinoco Granados ruled as a military dictator until he was overthrown and forced into exile. Primary health care facilities in Costa Rica include health clinics, with a general practitioner, nurse, clerk, pharmacist and a primary health technician. , The sovereign state is a unitary presidential constitutional republic. , Costa Rica is among the Latin America countries that have become popular destinations for medical tourism. But since the 1941 creation of the Social Insurance Administration (Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social – CCSS), Costa Rica has provided universal health care to its wage-earning residents, with coverage extended to dependants over time.  The major labor dispute between the peasants and the United Fruit Company (The Great Banana Strike) was a major event in the country's history and was an important step that would eventually lead to the formation of effective trade unions in Costa Rica, as the company was required to sign a collective agreement with its workers in 1938.. Since then, Costa Rica has held 14 presidential elections, the latest in 2018. Most of the native population was absorbed into the Spanish-speaking colonial society through inter-marriage, except for some small remnants, the most significant of which are the Bribri and Boruca tribes who still inhabit the mountains of the Cordillera de Talamanca, in the southeastern part of Costa Rica, near the frontier with Panama. Costa Rica is a small country that has made great strives against the spread of the new Coronavirus in its territory. The country is a presidential democratic republic. The president is elected directly by the people every four years, he can not be re-elected after a legislative period.  U.S. convicts, Italians and Chinese immigrants also participated in the construction project. The primary language spoken in Costa Rica is Spanish, which features characteristics distinct to the country, a form of Central American Spanish. As well, Costa Rica would benefit from more courses in languages such as English, Portuguese, Mandarin and French and also in Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM). Many foreign manufacturing and services companies operate in Costa Rica's Free Trade Zones (FTZ) where they benefit from investment and tax incentives. Geographically speaking, it is part of North America while its cultural heritage is Latin American.  According to NEF, Costa Rica's lead is due to its very high life expectancy which is second highest in the Americas, and higher than the United States.  This survey indicated a decline in the share of Catholics and rise in the share of Protestants and irreligious. It is its own country, having declared independence from Spain on September 15, 1821. These were small and scattered, although the timing of the transition from hunting and gathering to agriculture as the main livelihood in the territory is still unknown.  Often, people walking down the streets, or buying food at shops say hello by saying Pura Vida. Costa Rica´s territory is so small that it encompasses only 0.03 percent of the planet´s surface but is still within the top 20 richest countries in biodiversity on Earth in terms of species density. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. And later in the 19th century, the African flavor lent its presence with influence from other Caribbean mixed flavors. It has a population of around 5 million in a land area of 51,060 square kilometers (19,714 square miles). There are 14 known volcanoes in Costa Rica, and six of them have been active in the last 75 years.. , Many foreign companies (manufacturing and services) operate in Costa Rica's Free Trade Zones (FTZ) where they benefit from investment and tax incentives. In 2002, 96% of Costa Rican women used some form of contraception, and antenatal care services were provided to 87% of all pregnant women. Stay Informed – Register with the free Smart Traveler Enrollment Program (STEP) to ensure you receive travel alert or travel warning messages.  In response, the PRC built a new, $100 million, state-of-the-art football stadium in Parque la Sabana, in the province of San José.  Corcovado is the one park in Costa Rica where all four Costa Rican monkey species can be found. Central America also includes the Mesoamerican biodiversity hotspot that includes several islands. Costa Rica entered the Summer Olympics for the first time in 1936 with the fencer Bernardo de la Guardia and the Winter Olympics for the first time in 1980 with the skier Arturo Kinch. Costa Rica is located in Central America (which is a cultural region; as is Latin America) but technically all of Central America is the southernmost tip of North America.  According to Costa Rica Vacations, once tourists arrive in the country, 22% go to Tamarindo, 18% go to Arenal, 17% pass through Liberia (where the Daniel Oduber Quirós International Airport is located), 16% go to San José, the country's capital (passing through Juan Santamaría International Airport), while 18% choose Manuel Antonio and 7% Monteverde. The most significant products imported in 2015 (in order of dollar value) were refined petroleum, automobiles, packaged medications, broadcasting equipment and computers. ", "PURA VIDA: The Most Important Costa Rica Spanish Expression", "Bienvenidos a Costa Rica, la tierra de la pura vida: A Study of the Expression "pura vida" in the Spanish of Costa Rica", "World Happiness Report 2017 – World Happiness Report", "Revealed: The world's 10 happiest countries for 2019", "World Cup: Costa Rica defies the odds in winning Group D", "Navas Carries Costa Rica to World Cup Quarters", "World Cup 2014: Paulo Wanchope, the player who put Costa Rica on the map, has warning for England", "Costa Rica and Panama to host FIFA U-20 Women's World Cup 2020", "Bureau of the FIFA Council decisions on FIFA events", "Update on FIFA Club World Cup 2020 and women's youth tournaments", "International Human Development Indicators", "Long-Lived Costa Ricans Offer Secrets to Reaching 100", "Report from the 'Blue Zone': Why Do People Live Long in Costa Rica? In 1973, the CCSS took over administration of all 29 of the country's public hospitals and all health care, also launching a Rural Health Program (Programa de Salud Rural) for primary care to rural areas, later extended to primary care services nationwide. It reflects the inhabitant's philosophy of life, denoting a simple life, free of stress, a positive, relaxed feeling. Costa Rica is not a continent.It is a country in central America,belonging to North America.Costa Rica is located in Central America. The population stands at 4.95 million hence a population density of 84 people per square miles. The majority of the Afro-Costa Ricans are Creole English-speaking descendants of 19th century black Jamaican immigrant workers.. A main foreign policy objective of Costa Rica is to foster human rights and sustainable development as a way to secure stability and growth.. The Spanish language is the official and the most spoken language in Costa Rica, although English is also heard. A 2016 report by the U.S. government report identifies the current challenges facing the education system, including the high dropout rate among high school students.  The Nicoya Peninsula is considered one of the Blue Zones in the world, where people commonly live active lives past the age of 100 years. , Costa Rica was sparsely inhabited by indigenous peoples before coming under Spanish rule in the 16th century. Costa Rica is not an island and it is part of the American continent. Of native languages still spoken, primarily in indigenous reservations, the most numerically important are the Bribri, Maléku, Cabécar and Ngäbere languages; some of these have several thousand speakers in Costa Rica while others have a few hundred. , Of the GDP, 5.5% is generated by agriculture, 18.6% by industry and 75.9% by services. Costa Rica , officially the Republic of Costa Rica (Spanish: República de Costa Rica), is a country in Central America, bordered by Nicaragua to the north, the Caribbean Sea to the northeast, Panama to the southeast, the Pacific Ocean to the southwest, and Ecuador to the south of Cocos Island. Costa Rica is a member of the International Criminal Court, without a Bilateral Immunity Agreement of protection for the United States military (as covered under Article 98). Students who finish 11th grade receive a Costa Rican Bachillerato Diploma accredited by the Costa Rican Ministry of Education. Nicaragua can also impose timetables on Costa Rican traffic. Obregón Loría, Rafael. https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2019/01/sun-sea-and-stable-democracy-what-s-the-secret-to-costa-rica-s-success/#:~:text=As%20a%20result%2C%20Costa%20Rica,Happy%20Planet%20Index%20(HPI).&text=A%20recent%20Gallup%20poll%20found,longer%20than%20in%20the%20US. Arias announced that both countries would exchange ambassadors. With an area of 51,100 km², the country is about the size of Slovakia or slightly smaller than … Arenal Volcano, the youngest stratovolcano in Costa Rica, is one of the most active volcanoes in that country and in the world. Costa Rica is a linguistically diverse country and home to at least five living local indigenous languages spoken by the descendants of pre-Columbian peoples: Maléku, Cabécar, Bribri, Guaymí, and Buglere. Coffee production remained Costa Rica's principal source of wealth well into the 20th century, creating a wealthy class of growers, the so-called Coffee Barons. The literacy rate in Costa Rica is approximately 97 percent and English is widely spoken primarily due to Costa Rica's tourism industry. Contrary to common belief that Costa Rica is located in South America, the country is actually found in the Central American Isthmus, which forms a connection between North America and South America. It is in Central America, bordered by Nicaragua to the north and Panama to the south. The Republic of Costa Rica is bordered by two countries, namely Nicaragua to the north and Panama to the southeast, as well as the Caribbean Sea to the northeast and the Pacific Ocean to the southwest. The total exports were US$12.6 billion for a trade deficit of US$2.39 billion in 2015. It is the only state in the Americas which established Roman Catholicism as its state religion; other such countries are microstates in Europe: Liechtenstein, Monaco, the Vatican City and Malta.  It performs also well on comparisons of the state of democracy, press freedom and subjective happiness. They must also have an identity document or passport. Patients can choose private health care to avoid waiting lists. The country experiences a tropical climate in the lowlands an… . That date is still celebrated as Independence Day in Costa Rica even though, technically, under the Spanish Constitution of 1812 that had been readopted in 1820, Nicaragua and Costa Rica had become an autonomous province with its capital in León. Costa Rica became a "rural democracy" with no oppressed mestizo or indigenous class. Despite enormous difficulties with construction, disease, and financing, the railroad was completed in 1890. , In 2002, there were 0.58 new general practitioner (medical) consultations and 0.33 new specialist consultations per capita, and a hospital admission rate of 8.1%. (2016) Agriculture employs 12.9% of the labor force, industry 18.57%, services 69.02% (2016) For the region, its unemployment level is moderately high (8.2% in 2016, according to the IMF).  Universal public education is guaranteed in the constitution; primary education is obligatory, and both preschool and high school are free. The Buglere language and the closely related Guaymí are spoken by some in southeast Puntarenas.  This helped reorient the forestry sector away from commercial timber production and the resulting deforestation, and helped create awareness of the services it provides for the economy and society (i.e., carbon fixation, hydrological services such as producing fresh drinking water, biodiversity protection, and provision of scenic beauty).. This valley is the most populated region in the country and is surrounded by several volcanoes. Coordinates: 10°N 84°W / 10°N 84°W / 10; -84, Costa Rica (UK: /ˌkɒstə ˈriːkə/, US: /ˌkoʊstə/ (listen); Spanish: [ˈkosta ˈrika]; literally "Rich Coast"), officially the Republic of Costa Rica (Spanish: República de Costa Rica), is a country in Central America, bordered by Nicaragua to the north, the Caribbean Sea to the northeast, Panama to the southeast, the Pacific Ocean to the southwest, and Ecuador to the south of Cocos Island. The Department of Culture, Youth, and Sports is in charge of the promotion and coordination of cultural life. , In 1838, long after the Federal Republic of Central America ceased to function in practice, Costa Rica formally withdrew and proclaimed itself sovereign.  The New Economics Foundation (NEF) ranked Costa Rica first in its 2009 Happy Planet Index, and once again in 2012.  The article included this summary: "Costa Ricans enjoy the pleasure of living daily life to the fullest in a place that mitigates stress and maximizes joy".  Its best performance in the regional CONCACAF Gold Cup was runner-up in 2002. The guitar is popular, especially as an accompaniment to folk dances; however, the marimba was made the national instrument. This language is very common in the country’s most touristic areas so you can speak English at hotels and restaurants as well as hire tour guides who speak in a perfect English.  Having enacted these reforms, the junta transferred power to Ulate on 8 November 1949.  By 2016, the UN estimation for the population was around 5 million.. Costa Rica and Guatemala living comparison. It was not long before Spanish settlers turned to the hills, where they found rich volcanic soil and a milder climate than that of the lowlands..
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